Ahmad, M. I. (2004). A Rage Shared by Law: Post-September 11 Racial Violence as Crimes of Passion. California Law Review, 92(5), 1259–1330. https://doi.org/10.2307/3481418
In this study, Ahmad provides an overview of the racial violence Arabs, Muslims and South Asians experienced after 9/11, specifically noting the relationship between individual hate crimes and governmental policies. In addition, this article highlights the construction of a new racial identity and the psychological origins of post 9/11 violence – emphasizing the difference between violence pre-9/11 and post 9/11. Ahmad further outlines the “crime of passion” framework, indicating how violence and hate crimes pre-9/11 were deemed as crimes of moral depravity, unjustifiable acts, while hate crimes post 9/11 are understood as crimes of passion, justifiable acts. Lastly, Ahmad returns to the relationship between government policies and individual hate crimes, analyzing racist policies.
The Teaching Against Islamophobia resources were developed with funding support from the Law Foundation of BC, and the Centre for Comparative Muslim Studies at SFU.